“It is probable Davis and his cabinet will try to cross.”

I have received intelligence that Confederate President Davis may attempt to cross the Mississippi at Vicksburg on his way presumably to Mexico.  I wrote Gen. Dana,

WASHINGTON, April 30, 1865 – 1 p. m.

Major-General DANA,

Vicksburg, Miss.:

Station troops at Rodney or that vicinity at once, with cavalry to patrol the river and prevent all rebels from crossing it. It is probable Davis and his cabinet will try to cross. If they do it will be between the mouth of Big Black and Natchez. Call upon the navy for co-operation, and make every preparation to intercept him if he should. Notify commander at Baton Rouge to the same effect and communicate your action.

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 437

O.R., I, xlviii, part 2, p 248

“I certainly shall be able to go home within a few days”

I just returned to Washington from Raleigh.  I hopefully will be able to see Julia and the children soon.  I wrote her,

Washington Apl. 29th 1865

Dear Julia,
I have just returned after a pleasant trip to Raleigh N. C. where Gn, Sherman succeeded in bringing Johnston to terms which are perfectly satisfactory to me and I hope will be well received by the country, I have not yet been able to look over the papers to see what has transpired in my absence. As your letters have been forwarded to Raleigh I do not know whether you have moved yet or are talking of doing so.  I certainly shall be able to go home within a few days but before doing so some orders looking to the reduction of the Army, and expenses of the Nation generally, must be attended to.

Love and Kisses for you and the children.
Ulys

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 436-7

“General Johnston surrendered … on the basis agreed upon between General Lee and myself”

After my arrival, Gen. Sherman offered Johnston the same terms which Lee accepted.  Johnston accepted those terms as well.  I wrote Gen. Halleck,

RALEIGH, N. C., April 26, 1865-10 p. m.

Major General H. W. HALLECK,

Richmond, Va.:

General Johnston surrendered the forces under his command, embracing all from here to the Chattahoochee, to General Sherman, on the basis agreed upon between General Lee and myself for the Army of Virginia. Please order Sheridan back to Petersburg at once. If you think proper a sufficient force may go on to Danville to take possession of all munitions of war that may be stored there. Send copy of this to the Secretary of War.

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 434

O.R., I, xlvii, part 3, p 312

Stanton: “The arrangement between Sherman and Johnston meets with universal disapprobation”

I reached Raleigh yesterday and immediately spoke with Gen. Sherman.  I relayed the details of our conversation to Sec. Stanton.

RALEIGH, N. C., April 24, 1865-9 a. m.

Hon EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I reached here this morning, and delivered to General Sherman the reply to his negotiations with Johnston. He was not surprised, but rather expected their rejection. Word was immediately sent to Johnston terminating the truce, and information that civil matters could not be entertained in any convection between army commanders. General Sherman has been guided in his negotiations with Johnston entirely by what he though was precedent authorized by the President. He had before him the terms given by me to Lee’s army and the call of the rebel legislature of Virginia, authorized by Weitzel, as he supposed with the sanction of the President and myself. At the time of the agreement General Sherman did not know of the withdrawal of authority for the meeting of that legislature. The moment he learned through the papers that authority for the meeting had been withdrawn he communicated the fact to Johnston as having bearing on the negotiations had.

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

 

Today, Sec. Stanton wrote back,

Washington City, April 25, 1865-10. 50 a. m.

Lieutenant General U. S. GRANT,

Raleigh, or Headquarters in North Carolina:

Your dispatch received. The arrangement between Sherman and Johnston meets with universal disapprobation. No one of any class or shade of opinion approves it. I have not known as much surprise and discontent at anything that has happened during the war. No military news of importance has transpired since your departure. Hancock is here. Booth is still at large. Let me hear from you as frequently as possible. The hope of the country is that you may repair the misfortune occasioned by Sherman’s negotiations.

EDWIN M. STANTON,

Secretary of War.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 431-2

O.R., I, xlvii, part 3, p 293, 301-2

“The truce entered into by General Sherman will be ended as soon as I can reach Raleigh”

Sec. Stanton has ordered me to Raleigh to take personal command of forces there in the wake of the peace terms agreed to by Gen. Sherman.  I wrote Gen. Halleck,

FORT MONROE, April 22, 1865-4 p. m.

Major General H. W. HALLECK,

Richmond:

The truce entered into by General Sherman will be ended as soon as I can reach Raleigh. Move Sheridan with his cavalry toward Greensborough as soon as possible. I think it will be well to send one corps of infantry with the cavalry. The infantry need not go farther than Danville unless they receive orders hereafter.

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 430

O.R., I, xlvi, part 3, p 888

“I read it carefully myself … and felt satisfied that it could not possibly be approved”

With the rejection of Sherman’s terms by the President, I wrote him to resume hostilities.

HEADQUARTERS ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES,

Washington, D. C., April 21, 1865.

Major General W. T. SHERMAN,

Commanding Military Division of the Mississippi:

GENERAL: The basis of agreement entered into between yourself and General J. E. Johnston for the disbandment of the Southern army and the extension of the authority of the General Government over all the territory belonging to it, sent for the approval of the President, is received.

I read it carefully myself before submitting it to the President and Secretary of War and felt satisfied that it could not possibly be approved. My reasons for these views I will give you at another time in a more extended letter.

Your agreement touches upon questions of such vital importance that as soon as read I addressed a note to the Secretary of War notifying him of their receipt and the importance of immediate action by the president, and suggested in view of their importance that the entire cabinet be called together that all might give an expression of their opinions upon the matter. The result was a disapproval of the negotiations altogether, except for the surrender of the army commanded by General Johnston, and directions to me to notify you of this decision. I cannot do so better than by sending you the inclosed copy of a dispatch (penned by the late President, through signed by the Secretary of War) in answer to me on sending a letter received from General Lee proposing to meet me for the purpose of submitting the question of peace to a convention of officers.

Please notify General Johnston immediately on receipt of this of the termination of the truce and resume hostilities against his army at the earliest moment you can, acting in good faith.

The rebels known well the terms on which they can have peace and just when negotiations can commence, namely, when they lay down their arms and submit to the laws of the United States. Mr. Lincoln gave the full assurances of what he would do, I believe, in his conference with commissioners met in Hampton Roads.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 424-5

O.R., I, xlvii, part 3, p 263-4

Stanton: “You will give notice of the disapproval to General Sherman and direct him to resume hostilities”

I received a response from Sec. Stanton,

WAR DEPARTMENT,

Washington City, April 21, 1865.

Lieutenant-General GRANT:

GENERAL: The memorandum or basis agreed upon between General Sherman and General Johnston having been submitted to the President, they are disapproved. You will give notice of the disapproval to General Sherman and direct him to resume hostilities at the earliest moment. The instructions given to you by the late President Abraham Lincoln on the 3rd of March by my telegraph of that date, addressed to you, express substantially the views of President Andrew Johnson and will be observed by General Sherman. A copy is herewith appended. The President desires that you proceed immediately to the headquarters of General Sherman and direct operations against the enemy.

Yours, truly,

EDWIN M. STANTON,

Secretary of War.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 423-4

O.R., I, xlvii, part 3, p 263

“They are of such importance that I think immediate action should be taken on them”

The agreement between Sherman and Johnston goes well beyond the terms agreed between Gen. Lee and myself.  They touch on civil matters that exceed Gen. Sherman’s authority.  I forwarded the agreement to Sec. Stanton immediately,

WASHINGTON, April 21, 1865.

Hon E. M. STANTON,

Secretary of War:

I have received and just completed reading the dispatches borough by special messenger from General Sherman. They are of such importance that I think immediate action should be taken on them and that it should be done by the President in council with his whole cabinet. I would respectfully suggest whether the President should not be notified and all his cabinet, and the meeting take place to-night.

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 423

O.R., I, xlvii, part 3, p 263

Sherman “I enclose herewith a copy of an agreement made this day between General Joseph E. Johnston and myself”

Johnston has finally surrendered to Gen. Sherman.  He wrote Gen. Halleck,

HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,

In the Field, Raleigh, N. C., April 18, 1865.

Lieutenant General U. S. GRANT or

Major-General HALLECK,

Washington, D. C.:

GENERAL: I enclose herewith a copy of an agreement made this day between General Joseph E. Johnston and myself, which, if approved by the President of the United States, will produce peace from the Potomac and the Rio Grande. Mr. Breckinridge was present at our conference in his capacity as major-general, and satisfied me of the ability of General Johnston to carry out to the full extent the terms of this agreement, and if you will get the President to simply indorse the copy and commission me to carry out the terms, I will follow them to the conclusion. You will observe that it is an absolute submission of the enemy to the lawful authority of the United States, and dispersed his armies absolutely, and the point to which I attach most importance is that the dispersion and disbandment of these armies is done in such a manner as to prevent their breaking up into guerrilla bands. On the other hand, we can retain just as much of an army as we please. I agreed to toe mode and manner of the surrender of arms set forth, as it gives the States the means of repressing guerrillas, which we could not expect them to do if we stripped them of all arms. Both Generals Johnston and Breckinridge admitted that slavery was dead, and I could not insist on embracing it in such a paper, because it can be made with the states in detail. I know that all the men of substance South sincerely want peace, and I do not believe they will resort to war again during this century. I have no doubt that they will in the future be perfectly subordinate to the laws of the United States. The moment my action in this matter if approved I can spare five corps, and will ask for orders to leave General Schofield here with the Tenth Corps, and to march myself with the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Twentieth, and Twenty-third Corps, via Burkevill and Gordonsville, to Frederick or Hagerstown, there to be paid and mustered out. The question of finance is now the chief one, and every soldier and officer not needed should be got home at work. I would like to be able to begin the march north by May 1. I urge on the part of the President speedy action, as it is important to get the Confederate armies to their homes as well as our own.

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN,

Major-General, Commanding.

 

The agreements read,

[Inclosure Numbers 1.]

Memorandum or basis of agreement made this 18th day of April, A. D. 1865, near Durham’s Station, in the State of North Carolina, by and between General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding the Confederate army, and Major General William T. Sherman, commanding the army of the United States in North carolina, both present.

First. The contending armies now in the field to maintain the status quo until notice is given by the commanding general of any one to its opponent, and reasonable time, say forty-eight hours, allowed.

Second. The Confederate armies now in existence to be disbanded and conducted to their several State capitals, there to deposit their arms and public property in the State arsenal, and each officer and man to execute and file an agreement to cease from acts of war and to abide the action of both State and Federal authority. The number of arms and munitions of war to be reported to the Chief of Ordnance at Washington City, subject to the future action of the Congress of the United States, and in the meantime to be used solely to maintain peace and order within the borders of the States, respectively.

Third. The recognition by the Executive of the United States of the several State governments on their officers and legislatures taking the oaths prescribed by the Constitution of the United States, and where conflicting State governments have resulted from the war the legitimacy of all shall be submitted to the Supreme Court of the United States.

Fourth. The re-establishment of all the Federal courts in the several States, with powers as defined by the Constitution and laws of Congress.

Fifth. The people and inhabitants of all the States to be guaranteed, so far as the Executive can, their political rights and franchises, as well as their rights of person and property, as defined by the Constitution of the United States and of the States, respectively.

Sixth. The Executive authority of the Government of the United States not to disturb any of the people by reason of the late war so long as they live in peace and quiet, abstain from acts of armed hostility, and obey the laws in existence at the place of their residence.

Seventh. In general terms, the war to cease, a general amnesty, so far as the Executive of the United States can command, on condition of the disbandment of the Confederate armies, the distribution of the arms, and the resumption of peaceful pursuits by the officers and men hitherto composing said armies.

Not being fully empowered by our respective principals to fulfill these terms, we individually and officially pledge ourselves to promptly obtain the necessary authority and to carry out the above programme.

W. T. SHERMAN,

Major-General, Commanding Army United States in North Carolina.

J. E. JOHNSTON,

General, Commanding C. S. Army in North Carolina.

[Inclosure Numbers 2.]

As the avowed motive of the Government of the United States for the prosecution of the existing war with the Confederate states is to secure a reunion of all the States under one common government, and as wisdom and sound policy alike require that a common government should rest on the consent and be supported by the affections of all the people who compose it: Now, in order to ascertain whether it be practicable to put an end to the existing war and to the consequent destruction of life and property, having in view the correspondence and conversation which has recently taken place between Major General W. T. Sherman and myself, I propose the following points as a basis of pacification:

First. The disbanding of the military forces of the Confederacy; and,

Second. The recognition of the Constitution and authority of the Government of the United States on the following conditions:

Third. The preservation and continuance of the State governments.

Fourth. The preservation to the people of all the political rights and right of person and property secured to them by the Constitution of the United States and of their several States.

Fifth. Freedom from future persecution or penalties for their participation in the present war.

Sixth. Agreement to a general suspension of hostilities pending these negotiations.

Copy of a project submitted by General Johnston, being the product of Mr. Reagan, Postmaster-General of the Confederacy.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 419-20

O.R., I, xlvii, part 3, p 243-5

“You may receive all rebel officers and soldiers who surrender to you on … the terms given to General Lee”

Gen. Hancock has notified Gen. Halleck that rebel commander John Mosby and his cavalry have called for a truce.  It seems likely they will surrender.  I wrote Hancock,

WASHINGTON, April 19, 1865.-12.10 p. m.

Major-General HANCOCK, Winchester, Va.:

You may receive all rebel officers and soldiers who surrender to you on exactly the same terms were given to General Lee, except, have it distinctly understood that all who claim homes in States that never passed ordinances of secession have forfeited them and can only return on compliance with the amnesty proclamation. Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware, and Missouri are such States. They may return to West Virginia on their paroles.

U. S. GRANT,

Lieutenant-General.

 

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 14, p 410

O.R., I, xlvi, part 3, p 838-9