“It is … a grave question in my mind whether this policy … is not working injuriously to the Union Cause.”

July 31 1862 Wrote letter to Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury. “Large quantities of salt, flour, liquors and other articles of use and luxury are being shipped by way of the Tennessee river and other lines of communication, to different points within our lines.  It is presumed that these come under authority of regular permits from agents of the Treasury Department, and that the trade is so far legitimate.  The collateral smuggling that goes on undoubtedly to a large extent is another matter not now under notice.

“It is however a very grave question in my mind whether this policy of “letting trade follow the flag” is not working injuriously to the Union Cause.  Practically and really I think it is benefiting almost exclusively, first, a class of greedy traders whose first and only desire is gain, and to whom it would be idle to attribute the least patriotism, and secondly our enemies south of our lines.  The quantities in which these goods are shipped clearly intimate that they are intended to be worked off into the enemy’s country thus administering to him the most essential “aid and comfort.”

“Our lines are so extended that it is impossible for any military surveillance to contend successfully with the cunning of the traders, aided by the local knowledge and eager interest of the residents along the border.  The enemy are thus receiving supplies of most necessary and useful articles which relieve their sufferings and strengthens them for resistance to our authority; while we are sure that the benefits thus conferred, tend in no degree to abate their rancorous hostility to our flag and Government.  If any hopes have been entertained that a liberal commercial policy might have a conciliatory effect, I fear they will not be realized.

“The method of correcting the evil which first suggests itself is restriction of the quantity of these articles which may be allowed to be shipped under one invoice, together with more careful investigation of the loyalty of persons permitted to trade.  Very limited amounts will sufficient to supply the wants of the truly loyal men of the Districts within our lines, for unfortunately they are not numerous, and outside (south) of our lines, I fear it is little better than a unanimous rebellion.  The evil is a great and growing one, and needs immediate attention.”

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 255-6

National Archives, RG 56, Letters Received from Executive Officers

“Information obtained by Colonel Sheridan … shows that Bragg has made headquarters at Rome.”

July 30 1862.  Gen. Rosecrans has forwarded some captured rebel communications.  They have shed some light on the latest rebel movements.  I sent the following letter to Gen. Halleck, “Information obtained by Colonel Sheridan, who has been far to the front and right for several days, shows that Bragg has made headquarters at Rome. Most of the troops from Saltillo and Tupelo have gone to Chattanooga by rail. Wagons move across the country to Rome. Cheatham and Withrs have gone west. Price is in command in Mississippi; headquarters at Holly Springs, with force at Grand Junction. Had I not better move Ord’s entire command to Bolivar, one division of Rosecrans’ to Corinth, and drive the force in front south? they cannot number to exceed 10,000.



The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 136

O.R., I, xvii, part 2, 136

“Information just in from Colonel Sheridan … says large force leaving Saltillo for Chattanooga”

Wrote Gen. Halleck, “Information just in from Colonel Sheridan, who attacked and drove 600 rebels from Ripley this morning, says large force leaving Saltillo for Chattanooga by rail. Wagons moved across the country. [Rebel] General Cheatham with division had gone west; Withers to follow with division. The Hatchie northwest of Bolivar is now occupied by rebels. McClernand is there with about 6,000 men.”

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 250-1

O.R., I, xvii, part 2, 130-31

Gen. Logan: “I shall hold it or be burned in its ashes.”

Received report from Gen. Logan in Jackson TN of an attack there by rebel forces.

“My forces have been all sent to Bolivar against my protest; some two small regiments, not enough to do picket duty. My cavalry, including orderlies, have been sent also this morning.

“The road has been attacked this side of Humboldt and the bridges burned. I am sending all the force I have to repair and hold it. What will become of this place you can imagine. I shall hold it or be burned in its ashes.



I responded,

“What was extent of damage done the road? How far north of Jackson? What force was supposed to be engaged? Did we lose any men, and what number? Was the rebel loss anything, or did not men leave without firing? Had the train from Columbus passed?


“Major-General, Commanding.”

He replied,

“The extent of damages I do not know. The courier left while trestle was burning. Distance from Jackson, 14 miles. Force supposed to be some 300 cavalry. Our loss was said to be some 4 or 5 wounded. I did not learn that any were killed. Rebel loss, 4 killed and 5 prisoners. The train from Columbus had not passed down. I learn that a large cavalry force, with perhaps 200 infantry, crossed Hatchie last night about 18 miles from here. They may be the force.



I replied,

“Have we any force now at the burning bridge? Keep a sharp lookout for rebel forces, and if they are needed I will send you troops from here at once. I will have all the cars here in readiness to send troops should they be needed.



The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 248-9

O.R., I, xvii, Part 2, 128-9

“There is an evident disposition on the part of many of the citizens to join the guerrillas on their approach”

July 28 1862, Sent report to Gen. Halleck in Washington, “GENERAL: A report received late last night from General Morgan states that three companies of cavalry, under Major Moyers, went out southeast from Tuscumbia to attack a party of rebel cavalry which had surprised and captured two companies of General Thomas’ command and burned the bridge near Courtland. They found the enemy about 200 strong and made the attack, losing 23 killed, wounded, and missing. Does not state whether the enemy were repulsed with loss or not and gives no dates.

“General Ross, at Bolivar, is threatened by a strong force, possibly Price’s. I have had him re-enforced as much as possible from Jackson and have sent six regiments of infantry and one battery from here. There was some skirmishing yesterday at the crossing of the Hatchie, northwest of Bolivar, about 8 miles distant. This charge of troops is only intended to be temporary, but the necessity may arise to keep a larger force on the line of the Hatchie than we have had.

“There is an evident disposition on the part of many of the citizens to join the guerrillas on their approach. I am decidedly in favor of turning all discontented citizens within our lines out south.

“Colonel Sheridan has gone, with all the available cavalry belonging here, to attack and drive out a body of rebel cavalry that are pressing or conscripting men in that neighborhood. I will probably hear from them to-morrow.”

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 243

O.R., I, xvi, part 1, 830

“Gold and silver will not be paid within this district by speculators for the products of the rebel States.”

Despite the war, there is a burgeoning trade of gold for cotton from the rebel states.  I directed Maj. Rawlins to issue General Orders No. 64.

“The attention of the major-general commanding having been called to the fact of persons in this district sympathizing with the rebellion, who have cotton for sale, refusing to receive the United States Treasury notes in payment therefor, or anything other than gold and silver which is paid them by speculators whose love of gain is greater than their love of country, and the gold and silver thus paid indirectly affording aid and comfort to the enemy, renders necessary the publication of the following orders:

“1st. From and after the 1st of August, 1862, gold and silver will not be paid within this district by speculators for the products of the rebel States. United States Treasury notes are a legal tender in all cases, and when refused the parties refusing them will be arrested, and such of their crops as are not actually required for the subsistence of their families, stock, &c., may be seized and sold by the nearest quartermaster for the benefit of whom it may concern.

“2d. Money so received will be accounted for by the officer receiving it on his next account current, and used for the benefit of Government, only to be paid to the owners of the crops sold on orders from authority above that of district commanders.

“3d. Any speculator paying out gold and silver in violation of this order will be arrested and sent North, and the property so purchased seized and turned over to the proper department for the benefit of the Government.

“4th. A strict enforcement of this order is enjoined upon all officers in this district.

“By command of Major General U. S. Grant:”

“Col. Tarkington has been petitioned by union men of his county to organize a Regiment.”

Two days ago I received a telegram from Gen. McClernand asking that men of Tennessee who are loyal to the Union be organized into companies and armed to protect our supply lines.  Fortunately we have located someone to lead such a force.  I sent a telegram to the Military Governor of Tennessee, Andrew Johnson. “Mr. J. W. Tarkington, a union man of Henderson Co, reports that he has now five companies already organized and five more partially that will be filled soon.  He wishes to be commissioned as Col. of the Regt raised in Henderson, Haden, Carroll & McNary counties and [Mr.] Fielding Hurst as Lt. Col.  Hurst has been a refugee from his home and has acted as guide and scout for the army until our forces rendered it safe for him to return.  This Regt if accepted will want arms and orders of locating.  Allow me to suggest Perryville until fully prepared to move.  Dispatches sent to me will reach Col. Tarkington.  Col. Tarkington has been petitioned by union men of his county to organize a Regiment.”

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, vol 5, p 236

Library of Congress, Andrew Johnson

“Will Morgan’s force be sufficient to defend the long line given him? It seems to me it will not.”

July 25 1862, I have received a telegram from Gen. Rosecrans.  We are having a very difficult time maintaining our supply line through enemy country.  “General Morgan has reached Tuscumbia, and halts there, demanding 100 wagons in addition to his present train before proceeding beyond that point.

“General McPherson says he can transfer 50 tons per day along that road, if it be loaded and unloaded promptly and the road protected. But a train was cut off last night from returning by the destruction of a bridge east of Tuscumbia, and a party of infantry, probably Thomas’, attacked and probably captured 500 rebel cavalry at Courtland.”

I replied, “I have just seen the Quarter Master who tells me that the wagons required by Genl. Morgan cannot be furnished unless details can be made from Regimental trains to keep up the present number now hauling, between here and Pittsburg Landing.  I will see what can be done from Ords Command.  In this way, will Morgan’s force be sufficient to defend the long line given him?  It seems to me it will not.”

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 235

National Archives, RG 393, Army of the Miss., Telegrams Received

O.R., I, xvii, part 2, 120

“Inform Col. Fitch that his command will remain under Genl. Curtiss”

July 24 1862, Sent telegram to Gen. Sherman, “Inform Col. Fitch that his command will remain under Genl. Curtiss with the exception of the artillery taken from Memphis — that will be returned.  I telegraphed this to Col. Fitch but suppose from communications just received that he never got my dispatch.  Send all the men, transportation and such baggage to the Col as he may wish to have with him.”

The Papers of Ulysses S Grant, Vol 5, p 232

National Archives, RG 393, District of Eastern Ark., Letters Received